Instructions: Please read and respond to at least two of your peers’ posts. In your responses, consider these questions: Share your findings in your

Instructions:

Please read and respond to at least two of your peers’ posts. In your responses, consider these questions:

Share your findings in your initial post, then respond to two of your peers.

Remember:

Always construct your responses in a word processing program like Word. Check for grammar, spelling, and mechanical errors. Make the corrections and save the file to your computer.

Find the posts that you are going to reply to.

Submit your peer responses.

Please be sure to validate your opinions and ideas with citations and references.

Estimated time to complete: 1 hour

Both bacterial and viral infections are caused by microorganisms. Bacteria and viruses are the causative agents behind these infections. Bacteria are single-celled, prokaryotes that are abundant anywhere and can thrive in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. They can reproduce on their own. Viruses are smaller microorganisms that consists of genetic material enclosed within a protein coat, lacking the cellular machinery necessary for independent replication. Unlike bacteria, viruses can’t survive without a host (WebMD, 2023). Bacterial and viral infections are transmitted through five principal modes: Contact, airborne, droplet, vectors, and vehicular or contaminated inanimate objects such as food, water, and fomites. (Lee and Treanor, 2015).

For this week’s discussion, I will focus on bacterial infection of the ENT and eye infection. These infections are common and affect individual of all ages. Bacterial infections of the ENT and eyes are caused by various bacterial strains such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae or Moraxella catarrhalis. An example of a common bacterial eye infection is bacterial keratitis or corneal ulcer, an infection of the corneal tissue which is commonly caused by S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Predisposing risk factors for bacterial keratitis include contact lenses usage, previous topical steroid use, ocular surface disease, ocular trauma, previous keratitis and prior surgery, and corneal disease. Signs and symptoms include pain, photophobia, tearing, decreased or blurred vision, redness discharge, corneal ulcer, corneal infiltrates and hypopyon. For the identification of the causal organism, diagnostic tests such as gram staining, culture and sensitivity, and PCR tests is vital before starting treatments. Ensuring proper treatment for bacterial keratitis is important to decrease the risk of significant complications, including impaired vision or, in severe cases, the complete loss of the affected eye (Cabrera-Aguas et al, 2021). Topical antibiotics are the primary treatment of this infection, options include single-drug therapy with fluoroquinolones or fortified aminoglycoside and cephalosporin combinations. Effectivity of treatments would show reduction in ulcer size, blunting of ulcer margins, reduction of pain, photophobia, lid edema, and discharge. It is also important to monitor for worsening of symptoms, increased size of ulcer and more feathery margins, increase endoexudates and hypopyon while on treatment (Gurnani and Kaur, 2023). While contact lens use is one of the major causes of bacterial keratitis. It is important to look into and be cautious on overnight wearing of contact lenses, overwearing, inadequate contact lens hygiene such as rinsing in tap water, improper cleaning, contamination and contact lens sharing, swimming with contact lenses, and solution contamination. Offering thorough patient education about bacterial keratitis enables individuals to effectively manage their treatment and recovery resulting in improved outcomes.

Cabrera-Aguas M, Khoo P, Watson SL. Infectious keratitis: A review. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2022 Jul;50(5):543-562. doi: 10.1111/ceo.14113. Epub 2022 Jun 3. PMID: 35610943; PMCID: PMC9542356.

Gurnani B, Kaur K. Bacterial Keratitis. [Updated 2023 Jun 11]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024 Jan-. Available from:

Lee FEH, Treanor JJ. Viral Infections. Murray and Nadel’s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 2016:527–556.e15. doi: 10.1016/B978-1-4557-3383-5.00032-4. Epub 2015 Apr 3. PMCID: PMC7152149.

WebMD. (24 September, 2023). Bacterial and Viral Infections. Obtained from:
https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/bacterial-and-viral-infections.

In exploring disorders of the eyes and ears, it becomes evident that distinguishing between viral infections, bacterial infections, and problems caused by allergic or immune responses is crucial for effective management. Here are five key differences between these etiologies:

1. Symptoms: Viral infections in the eyes and ears often present with mild symptoms that include redness, irritation, and watery discharge. A common example is viral conjunctivitis, which often resolves without treatment. In contrast, bacterial infections usually manifest with more severe symptoms such as purulent (pus-like) discharge and significant pain. Bacterial ear infections, like otitis media, can cause severe ear pain and possibly fever. Allergic reactions typically cause itching, swelling, and watery discharge, as seen in allergic conjunctivitis, where symptoms are bilateral and include itching and puffy eyelids.

2. Duration and Progression: Viral infections often have a self-limiting course, generally resolving within a week or two without intervention. Bacterial infections, if left untreated, can persist and lead to more severe complications. Allergic responses are usually recurring or persistent based on exposure to the allergen.

3. Response to Treatment: Bacterial infections respond well to antibiotics, while viral infections do not. For instance, antibiotic ear drops are effective in treating bacterial otitis externa but would not benefit a viral cause like herpes zoster optics. Allergic conditions respond favorably to antihistamines and steroids, which do not affect the course of viral or bacterial infections.

4. Diagnostic Tools: Diagnosis can often be inferred from symptoms, but certain tools help distinguish etiologies. Cultures and swab tests can identify bacterial infections, whereas blood tests and allergy testing (like skin prick tests) can confirm allergic responses. Viral infections are often diagnosed based on patient history and symptomatology, as specific testing might not be always accessible.

5. Epidemiology and Risk Factors: Viral and bacterial infections often have different risk factors and spread patterns. Viral infections can be highly contagious and are common in crowded settings, while bacterial infections might be associated with water exposure or breaks in skin integrity. Allergic reactions are related to individual sensitivities and exposure to specific environmental allergens.

Understanding these distinctions is crucial for clinicians to administer appropriate treatments and manage patient expectations effectively. Effective diagnosis often hinges on recognizing these differences and applying the correct diagnostic and therapeutic tools.

References:

Pink eye (conjunctivitis) – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic. (2024, March 29). Mayo Clinic. to an external site..

Watson, S. (2023, February 3). How long does Pink eye last?Healthline. to an external site.

Pink eye (conjunctivitis) – Diagnosis and treatment – Mayo Clinic. (2024, March 29). to an external site.

Share This Post

Email
WhatsApp
Facebook
Twitter
LinkedIn
Pinterest
Reddit

Order a Similar Paper and get 15% Discount on your First Order

Related Questions